The composition of the switch is very similar to that of a normal computer. The switch has its own CPU, memory, external memory FLASH (functionally similar to a computer's hard drive), boot memory (similar to a computer's BIOS), and important switch chips and network interface chips (similar to a network card in a computer).
Unlike a normal computer, after receiving the data, the network interface chip performs the storage and forwarding operations through the switch chip, and does not pass through the system CPU. The independent (fixed port) switch and the unmanaged switch mentioned above. It is such a structure. The difference is that the independent (fixed port) switch only slightly loses the port scalability to the more advanced switch, but depending on the design, a very advanced CPU and a large amount of memory can be used in the system. Such a multi-layer switch can use the system's CPU to handle policies such as routing and network security to implement advanced network applications. Many switches use a general-purpose CPU, of course not our common Intel, but RISC chips like the Motorola MPC8245 or MIPS.